Development of Waste-to-Energy Projects
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The first objective of waste management must always be to protect society and the health of individuals from harmful substances contained in the waste. Along the various methods around the globe with which waste has been treated the waste pyramid or waste management hierarchy has become widely accepted as the governing principle for waste management in modern societies. These principles have also been integrated in the European waste framework directive 2008/98/EC. At the bottom of the pyramid lays disposal of waste, meaning it is the least favourable option to treat a primary waste. However this does not mean implementing the waste pyramid prohibits disposal. It merely means that before disposal all other meaningful options are exhausted, and the quantity has been minimized.

Application of Modified NiCrMo Alloy Systems for Boiler Tube Surface Protection in Waste-to-Energy Environments
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Internationally, Waste to Energy and Incineration markets continue to grow in capacity as fossil fueled facilities decline and nuclear generation is curtailed. With this comes a greater need to burn more corrosive materials combust at higher temperatures and extract more energy. The reliability burden that this places on operators of plants is re-opening opportunities for thermal spray solutions as a cost effective solution for boiler tube protection. Where maintenance costs, opportunity costs and access restrictions may preclude alternative in-situ technologies, thermal spray technology may fill a gap in providing new reliable and flexible process and materials technologies for both mid- and long-term protection of water wall and superheater tubes. While historically thermal spray coating solutions have had a spotty record in waste to energy environments, advances in both process and materials technology specifically for WTE environments is such that coating performance now approaches the performance of high alloy wrought materials. This is verified through accurate laboratory modeling and scale tests and trials conducted by OEM’s and plants.

The Added Value of the Balance Method for Waste-to-Energy Operators and National Authorities
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Different directives of the European Union may require operators of Waste to Energy WTE plants to monitor the composition of their waste feed with respect to the Content of biomass and fossil organic matter. The mass fractions of both materials are not only of relevance for the amount of fossil and thus climate relevant CO2 emissions of the plant, but also for the ratio of renewable energy generated, as biomass in wastes is considered as renewable energy source.

International Experience of Risks Sharing between Public and Private Entities in Energy-from-Waste Plants Construction
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Imagine that you are the mayor of a city named Metropolis and are in Charge of School logistics. Before doing so, you might have to ask yourself a few essential questions. What kind of transportation will you provide? Who will it benefit: students, staff or both? Where will the service be provided? When will it be provided: in the evening, morning? And finally, how much will it cost? All these essential questions need to be answered before starting to implement this project and to buy your buses. By doing so, planning, financing, building and operating the chosen mean of Transportation will become an easier task. After that, your political decisions will direct the choice of implication of private sector on the different aspects of your project.

Enhancing of the Energy Efficiency of an Existing Waste Incineration Plant by Retrofitting with a District Heating Network
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The German Cycle Economy Act (Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz KrWG) and discussions on the turn of local energy policies led to intensive examination of options for optimising utilisation of heat produced by the waste incineration plant (MKW) in Weißenhorn. This has been carried out by the waste management firm(Abfallwirtschaftsbetrieb – AWB) of the district of Neu-Ulm over a long period of time. This was also prompted by knowledge that utilisation of already generated energy in the form of combined heat and power generation (CHP) is one of the most efficient ways of achieving climate protection targets. This results from considering which courses of action are available for climate protection.

Use of a Fabric Filter for the Sorption – What Has to be Considered? – Experiences and Solutions –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In almost all flue gas cleaning systems installed at WtE-plants, the fabric filters are central components. A good example for this is the conditioned dry sorption process which is currently preferentially used in Europe. Within the filter not only the particles and the particulate heavy metals are separated from the gas flow, but also all reaction products resulting from the separation of gaseous pollutants such as HF, HCl, SOx, heavy metals and in this respect particularly Hg as well as PCDD/PCDF. In addition to this the fabric filter constitutes an excellent reaction chamber with high additive powder density in the filter cake.

New Waste-to-Energy Facility Energy Works Hull, United Kingdom
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Energy Works Hull (the Project) is a milestone project for the UK’s waste and renewable energy sector. It will be one of the largest gasification facilities receiving MSW in the UK, indeed in Europe. It is one of the first advanced conversion technology Projects to receive its renewable electricity subsidies through a Contract for Difference, the mechanism by which the UK Government determined to move from Renewable Obligation Certificates following its Electricity Market Reform process. It also plays a significant part of the urban regeneration of the City of Hull. The level of community engagement and benefit has resulted in the project receiving a GBP19.9M grant from the European Union’s Regional Development Fund.

Survey on Synergies for Improved Ash Treatment at Several Bavarian Waste-to-Energy Plants
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
State-of-the-art Waste-to-Energy plants are reducing the volume of municipal and commercial waste as well as generating electric power and district heating. This survey concentrates on bottom ash treatment and utilization from a wet discharge process all Bavarian Waste-to-Energy – WtE – plants have in common.

New Developments of an Effective SNCR Control System Incorporating the NOx Mass Flow Profile
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
The NOx reduction rates which have been achieved in recent years using non-catalytic technologies (SNCR) have proved to be reliable even in applications which were believed to work only with the more costly SCR process in the past. In the meantime, SNCR has advanced to be the Best Available Technology (BAT) in grate-fired combustion plants.

SNCR for Low NOx Emissions – Case Study of a Swedish Waste-to-Energy Plant –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
All over the world people understand that reducing air pollution is essential to increase health and comfort of people. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are among the main components of pollutants caused by combustion processes. It is toxic by direct contact and it causes acid rain.

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