APPLYING US EPA OTHER TEST METHOD 10 WITH OPEN-PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR MEASURING TOTAL METHANE EMISSIONS IN A LANDFILL
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Optical Remote Sensing (ORS) is a powerful technique for measuring air contaminant emissions from fugitive area sources. Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Defense’s (DoD) Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a Radial Plume Mapping (RPM) methodology to directly characterize gaseous emissions from area sources has been demonstrated and validated, and a protocol has been developed and peer reviewed. This EPA “Other Test Method” was made available for use on the EPA website in July 2006. The RPM-based methodologies use ORS techniques to collect path-integrated concentration (PIC) data from multiple beam paths in a plane and combine these with optimization algorithms to map the field of concentration across the plume of contaminant. This test method currently describes two methodologies that can be applied for landfill emission characteriztion. The methodologies are independent of the particular path-integrated ORS system used to generate the PIC data.

GIS DATABASES AS A BASIS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT OF LANDFILLS
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
The disposal of waste in dumps or poorly operated landfills with no base liner or capturing of emissions is a common practice all over the world, particularly in developing countries. Especially the emerging countries with high economical growth rates face the problem of increasing per capita amounts of waste and growing urbanisation. Landfills are getting closer to residential areas and pose a hazard to the population and other subjects of protection.

COUPLING GIS AND SYSTEM SIMULATION MODELS UNDER A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ASSESSING SANITARY LANDFILL PERFORMANCE
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Performance based landfill design is a design approach which selects the most appropriate design components of a landfill and their design details to result in the desired overall performance with respect to performance criteria considering system variables (Tarhan and Ünlü, 2005). Large number or landfill system variables and their complex interactions make the performance-based landfill design a challenging engineering problem. Decision support systems (DSS) are among the most promising approaches to confront this complexity.

THE USE OF REMOTE SENSING TO MAP ILLEGAL LANDFILLS AT THE BORDER OF IRELAND/NORTHERN IRELAND
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
The formal purpose of the INTERREG IIIA study is to implement satellite remote sensing to map illegal landfills at the border of Ireland/Northern Ireland. Both the main study area and pilot area are depicted in Figure 1. Within the pilot area as outlined by the red boundary under Figure 1, fieldwork and geophysics occurred early June 2007 and satellite assessment is ongoing. The main study and fieldworks for all counties, as marked by green shading, is planned for August and September 2007.

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND PRIORITIZATION OF UNCONTROLLED LANDFILLS BY USING GIS TECHNOLOGY
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
In the last few years, the problems related to the mismanagement of exhausted landfills and/or uncontrolled urban and industrial waste refusals have assumed more and more importance, both for the environmental implications and for the connected technical-administrative responsibilities. This study was aimed at defining a criterion to assess the effective risk related to the presence of illegal landfills. The present article was carried out through the following steps: assessing the potential hazard of uncontrolled landfills; linking the obtained results, also by using GIS applications, with territorial vulnerability indexes (mainly referred to water and soil environmental matrixes and to the presence of population); elaborating an Integrated Risk Index (IRI) able to represent the uncontrolled landfill environmental risk level in relation to the area where it is located.

LIFE CYCLE ASSESMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POSSIBILITIES IN ASTURIAS (SPAIN)
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) constitutes a serious problem in urban areas. A waste hierarchy is often suggested and used in waste policy making. Different versions of the hierarchy exist, but in most cases the following order is suggested: 1. Reduce the amount of waste, 2. Reuse, 3. Recycle materials, 4. Incinerate with heat recovery, 5. Landfill. The first priority, to reduce the amount of waste, is generally accepted. However, the remaining waste needs to be taken care of as efficiently as possible. The hierarchy after the top priority is often contested and discussions on waste policy are intense in many countries.

Process and Quality Control of MBT-Waste by Means of Thermal Analysis
© Wasteconsult international (5/2007)
The present study reports on the application of thermal analysis for investigation and characterization of MBT – materials. The thermal behaviour of waste materials depends on physical and chemical properties of all waste components.

From the Geographical Information System to computer- assisted rehabilitation planning for water-supply systems
© Vulkan-Verlag GmbH (10/2004)
The Department of Domestic Water Management of the Technical University of Erfurt, Faculty of Engineering, participated, on the basis of cooperation agreements existing since 1994 with Thüwa Thüringen Wasser GmbH (formerly Erfurt Municipal Services), in solving the problem of rehabilitation of Erfurt's water piping system.

New approaches to efficient plant design in the FEED phase 
© Vulkan-Verlag GmbH (6/2004)
Around 80 % of the total costs are defined in the early design phase of a plant construction project, the so-called front-end engineering and design (FEED) phase.

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