WHAT A FUTURE SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SHOULD BE? CURRENT STATUS, PROBREM, AND FUTURE DIRECTION IN JAPAN
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
There are three types of landfill in Japan according to the risk control level, strictly controlled, controlled, and least controlled landfill. They correspond to the categories of industrial wastes which are designated by law, i.e. hazardous waste should be disposed of in the first type, inert waste is only permuted to reclaim in the third type, and other industrial waste and municipal solid waste are allowed to fill in the second type. In this paper a future final disposal of solid wastes as it ought to be in our country will be proposed after the outline of the status quo of waste management and final disposal and their problems are discussed.

MINERAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN STEEL SLAG USED AS LANDFILL COVER LINER MATERIAL
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Slags from steel making are in many cases valuable materials that can be reused. Potential areas for reuse are construction applications, e.g. in roads, pavements for dormant trafficas parking lots, or for dense liners in a landfill base or cover constructions. The reuse of residuals avoids landfilling of those materials and minimizes the exploitation of natural raw materials for construction purposes. Often, construction costs can be reduced.

EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT GEOTEXTILES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE GEOMEMBRANE AT LANDFILLS
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Characterisation of the efficiency of geotextiles to protect geomembranes against puncture within the installation of the drainage layer at the landfill bottom liner is a key parameter to ensure the respect of the active barrier performance defined in the legislation. Geotextiles are then used within the constitution of the active barrier of landfills in order to protect the geomembrane against puncture due to the installation of the gravels drainage layer and of the coming waste mass weight above the barrier. These geotextiles have to be designed for this use. To date, two tests are normalised: static and dynamic puncture tests. The results of these tests are indicated on all the technical documents describing a protection geotextile.

THE ROAD MAP FOR THE DESIGN OF A LANDFILL IN A SEISMIC AREA
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
The MSW Catania landfill is located in an active seismic area where the horizontal acceleration, due to the earthquake, produces an additional instability factor inside the system. The design approach must consider the local soil amplification and the amplification phenomena inside the waste.

FIELD TESTS ON LANDFILL CLAY BARRIER SUBMITTED TO LOCAL SUBSIDENCE
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Since 2003, the french radioactive waste agency ANDRA is responsible for the site for the storage of very low level nuclear waste, located in the Aube, in France. This kind of disposal facility requires a lot of precautionary measures. To ensure the radioactive waste containment, the confinement of the capping cover of the storage cells is obtained by the association of a compacted clay layer and a geomembrane (Camp et al., 2005). The cross section of the barrier is presented on the Figure 2. Due to the structure of the capping system, there is a risk of damage of the geomembrane due to the compaction of the overlying clay layer. So, compaction energy has to be relatively weak not to damage this one.

A PROBABILISTIC ASSESSMENT OF CLAY LINER HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
The overall objective of this study was to review the issues relating to the setting of permeability limits and evaluate the use of probabilistic assessment techniques for assessing the degree of compliance with specifications. Specifically, the objectives were: - Establish the precision and variability inherent in selected sampling and testing methods for a constructed clay landfill wall by statistical techniques; - Review the applicability of indirect testing in the prediction of permeabilities; and - Provide recommendations for the future use of probabilistic techniques in relation to verification of quality of construction of clay structures in landfills.

INVESTIGATIONS OF PORE WATER PRESSURES IN MBT WASTE MATERIAL
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
One of the main goals of mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of waste before disposal is the reduction of undesired impact on the environment, which is caused by the uncontrolled emission and mechanical behaviour of landfills. The large landfill catastrophes of the last years with the collapse of large parts of the landfill body were amongst others caused by a combination of inappropriate waste disposal (poor compaction) and high water saturation of the waste (heavy rainfall, leachate recirculation, no drainage system at all or not functioning) (e.g. Brink et al., 1999, Hendron et al., 1999, Kavazanjian and Merry, 2005). In all these cases leachate generated hydrostatic forces which reduce the safety factor in stability analysis and may lead to a possible instability of the landfill.

PERFORMANCE OF GEOMEMBRANE LANDFILL LINERS – HOW MUCH DO WE CARE?
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Geomembranes used as basal liners at landfills are subject to many tests prior to and during their installation. However, there are not many ways to test their performance on site once they have been installed and covered with protective geotextile and a leachate collection layer. The most common and the most practical method of testing the performance of plastic geomembranes are electrical leak detection surveys (ELDS). Electrical leak detection surveys are regularly featured in conference literature and have been extensively used to test geomembranes for nearly two decades. They are recognized as a useful construction quality assurance (CQA) tool to check on the integrity of basal geomembrane liners at landfills worldwide.

THE HIGH VOLTAGE DC METHOD FOR LEAKAGE DETECTION IN HAZARD WASTE LANDFILL
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Electrical method has been developed to detect and locate leaks in geomembrane liner used in surface impoundment or landfill to prevent environment from leachates contamination(Darilek G, 2001, 2003). The principle of electrical leak location is to place a voltage across the geomembrane liner and measure the resultant electrical potentials at widely spaced points. To verify the performance of this leak detection and location method, Parra (1988) studied the electrical response of a leak in a geomembrane liner and developed a theoretical model representing the lined impoundment or landfill, which has become a conventional model.

APPLICATION OF INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY TO STUDY BEHAVIOUR OF BIOGAS CAPTATION WELLS
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Municipal solid wastes collected in sanitary landfills contain a significant percentage of organic substances which produce large amount of biogas due to the anaerobic conditions, that are present underground. The biogas trapped inside the landfill causes an overpressure which produces very dangerous emissions and escapes of biogas. To avoid the risk of these migrations and to exploit the heating value of the gas, biogas is generally collected and used as fuel in energy systems.

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