Personal protective equipment to minimize the shipyard production processes health effects on shipyard workers
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
Production processes of shipyards are divided into two main divisions under new shipbuilding and ship repair industry. The shipbuilding and ship repair industry is the combination of different production processes such as surface preparation, painting and coating, machining and metalworking operations, solvent cleaning and degreasing, welding and cutting operations. The inputs of these processes are various types of products and raw material such as primarily steel and other metals, paints and solvents, blasting abrasives, and machine and cutting oils.

IDENTIFICATION, EVALUATION AND CATEGORIZATION OF UNCONTROLLED LANDFILL SITES IN CYPRUS
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
The protection of the environment from the cease of operation of all uncontrolled / semi controlled disposal areas comes up to a necessity and a priority for the Republic of Cyprus as a new member of European Community. For the complete harmonization with the principles of sustainable development and European legislation (99/31/EC on the landfill of waste and 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste), “The strategic plan for solid waste management in Cyprus” was prepared in June 2002 (it has been approved by the Cypriot Parliament in 2003).

WEEE TOXIC POTENTIAL: ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDOUSNESS & CASE STUDY NEW DELHI, INDIA
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
E-waste is an emerging problem owing to the hazardous materials associated with it. Electrical and electronic waste materials contains thousands of toxics metals e.g. lead and cadmium in the circuit board, lead oxide and cadmium in monitor Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs), mercury in switches and flat screen monitors, cadmium in computer batteries, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in capacitors and transformers, and brominated flame retardants on printed circuit boards. Besides the toxic materials associated with each component of the computer, insulation of certain parts like plastic casings cables and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) releases highly toxic gases.

LESSONS FROM DEVELOPMENT OF VENOUS INDUSTRIAL PARKS IN JAPAN AND CHINA AS MESO-SCALE WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
In the past decades, the whole world especially Asia achieved rapid economic growth, which brought significant economic benefit for human, but at the same time, caused heavy environmental burden and severe resource issues. Accompanied with the “mass production, mass consumption” development model, mass waste was produced and brought serious environmental problem. Now, Japan faces the big problem of scarcity of landfill.

BIOAEROSOL AND ODOUR EMISSIONS: A COMPARISON OF THREE COMPOSTING SITES IN SCOTLAND
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Emissions of odour and airborne micro-organisms or bioaerosols are two potentially unfavourable impacts from composting facilities (Drew G.H., Smith R. & al, 2005). Composting facilities that are inappropriately managed have the potential to cause pollution, adverse health effects and nuisance through odours, leachate, dust and potentially harmful bioaerosols. The health impacts from bioaerosols can include certain forms of infectious diseases, such as invasive aspergillosis, as well as allergic and inflammatory responses (Denning, 1998; Latge, 1999; Reboux G., Piarroux R. & al, 2001). In addition to the potential health risks posed by bioaerosols, odour emissions from composting facilities have given rise to complaints from the public.

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BOTTOM ASH PRODUCED IN A SANITARY WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY AND INFLUENCE OF THE OPERATING CONDITIONS AIMED AT MATERIAL RECOVERY OR SAFE DISPOSAL
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Italian legislation, in abidance with EU guidelines, imposes that sanitary and hospital waste must be incinerated before final disposal. Incineration is carried out in specific facilities that are very similar to municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators with energy recovery and flue gas treatment units, and in which combustion is usually performed in rotary kilns due to the heterogeneity of the feed waste. Combustion residues, in Italy, are disposed of not only in landfills for non hazardous waste but also in landfills for hazardous waste, as a precautionary measure for the handling of sanitary waste residues. Current EU legislation on waste management however, is encouraging different national and regional authorities to modify their regulations and standards in order to favour sustainable recycling of waste streams versus landfill disposal.

DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A NATIONWIDE LANDFILL RATING SYSTEM IN SWITZERLAND – A CONTRIBUTION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Though landfilling is often seen as the least preferable waste management option in ecological terms (see, e.g., ERIKSSON et al., 2005), it is very likely that landfills will continue to play a crucial role as final (or intermediate) sinks of our anthropogenic metabolism (BRUNNER, 2004) “for the foreseeable future” (ALLEN, 2001, p. 4; BUTT & ODUYEMI, 2003). The continuing importance of landfills in waste management is critical with respect to at least two prerequisites of the guiding concept of sustainable development (SD), intra-generative and inter-generative equity.

ASSESSEMENT OF WASTE OPERATORS PERFOMANCE: THE PORTUGUESE CASE
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
The activities of public water supply, waste water treatment and urban solid waste management are public services of a structural nature essential to general well-being, public health and the collective security of communities and businesses and environmental protection. These services should be governed by the principles of universal access, service continuity and quality, and price efficiency and equity. In the cases of public water supply and waste water treatment in particular, these services are natural local or regional monopolies, which requires a form of regulation that overcomes the absence of the self-regulation mechanisms that characterise competitive markets. In the absence of regulation, there are no incentives for operators to improve their efficiency and there is a risk of operators’ interests prevailing over those of users, with the risk that users will receive lower quality services at higher prices.

ACTIVE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF INHALABLE COARSE PARTICLES AND FINE PARTICLES IN THE VICINITY OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATOR.
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Our environment contains persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Of these substances, dioxins, furans and the so-called “dioxin-like” PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) are the best known because they are the most toxic. Together with the problem of POPs, much has been said about problems linked to atmospheric pollution from fine particles in scientific circles over the last few years. European normatives are moving towards increasingly specific limits such as, for example, the introduction of limits for PM 2.5 and the classification of vehicles according to the number of particles they emit.

SEISMIC INVESTIGATION FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ELASTIC SETTLEMENT IN MSW LANDFILL
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
The planning of new structures, such as roads, buildings, or the disposal of new waste material above old landfills has to take into account the estimate of the settlements of the waste materials, due to the addition of the loads. The estimate of settlement is necessary to verify the integrity and functionality in the middle and long-term of the new structures. The analytical models for estimating the overall settlements originate from the solution proposed by Sowers (1973). This solution divides the total amount of the settlement in different components (elastic and time delayed); these ones differ by the nature and temporal development.

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