Refuse Derived Fuel – A European Market Heading for Overcapacity
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
During the last five years, the residual waste market has been transformed from one whose geography was largely defined by a country’s borders to one that has become truly European in nature. Increasing, and now significant, tonnages of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and solid recovered fuel (SRF) are moving across national boundaries. In the UK, for example, the export of RDF and SRF has grown from 250,000 tonnes per annum (tpa) in 2011 to 3.4 million tpa in 2015.

International Experience of Risks Sharing between Public and Private Entities in Energy-from-Waste Plants Construction
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Imagine that you are the mayor of a city named Metropolis and are in Charge of School logistics. Before doing so, you might have to ask yourself a few essential questions. What kind of transportation will you provide? Who will it benefit: students, staff or both? Where will the service be provided? When will it be provided: in the evening, morning? And finally, how much will it cost? All these essential questions need to be answered before starting to implement this project and to buy your buses. By doing so, planning, financing, building and operating the chosen mean of Transportation will become an easier task. After that, your political decisions will direct the choice of implication of private sector on the different aspects of your project.

Fully Automated Sorting Plant for Municipal Solid Waste in Oslo with Recovery of Metals, Plastics, Paper and Refuse Derived Fuel
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In order to treat household waste Romerike Avfallsforedling (ROAF) located in Skedsmorkorset north of Oslo, Norway required the installation of a mechanical Treatment facility to process 40,000 tpa. Together with a Norwegian based technical consultancy Mepex and German based technical consultancy EUG the project was tendered and the plant build against a technical specification. In 2013 the project was awarded to Stadler Anlagenbau and since April 2014 the plant is in operation with an hourly throughput of thirty tons. The input waste contains specific green coloured bags containing food waste which is collected together with the residual waste from the households. The process recovers successfully the green food bags before the remaining waste is mechanically pre-treated and screened to isolate a polymer rich fraction which is then fully segregated via NIR technology in to target polymers prior to fully automated product baling. Recoverable Fibre is optically targeted as well as ferrous and non-ferrous metals. All food waste is transported off site for further biological treatment and the remaining residual waste leaves site for thermal recovery. In 2015 the plant has been successfully upgraded to forty tons per hour and remains fully automated including material baling.

Enhancing of the Energy Efficiency of an Existing Waste Incineration Plant by Retrofitting with a District Heating Network
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The German Cycle Economy Act (Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz KrWG) and discussions on the turn of local energy policies led to intensive examination of options for optimising utilisation of heat produced by the waste incineration plant (MKW) in Weißenhorn. This has been carried out by the waste management firm(Abfallwirtschaftsbetrieb – AWB) of the district of Neu-Ulm over a long period of time. This was also prompted by knowledge that utilisation of already generated energy in the form of combined heat and power generation (CHP) is one of the most efficient ways of achieving climate protection targets. This results from considering which courses of action are available for climate protection.

Waste Management in India and Experience with the Implementation of Projects Based on Public Private Partnership Model
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Decades of improper Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Management has resulted in the creation of huge dumpsites in cities. These dumpsites are causing considerable environmental pollution and are full to capacity in most cities. Land for new disposal sites is not easily available due to increasing urbanization and population pressure. In many cases there is considerable protest from surrounding villages for setting up of a new MSW disposal site.

Markets for Solid Waste Management in Arabic Countries
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a very challenging activity all over the world, especially with the rising world population, the growth in industrialisation and the expansion of urbanisation. Land scarcity and environmental and public health implications are raising serious concerns on the landfilling of solid waste as a disposal route. It is, therefore becoming exceedingly urgent, for the Arab region, to develop and implement disposal methods for MSW that is cost effective and environmentally sustainable.

From Waste to Resources – MBT Technology Through The Ages
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
In 2012, 493 kg of municipal waste were produced per person in Europe. Denmark, with 668 kg of municipal waste per person, produced the highest per-capita amount of waste, followed by Cyprus, Luxembourg and Germany with each generating more than 600 kg per person. An enormous amount of goods used in everyday life is produced from plastic: bottles, shopping bags, disposable tableware, pipes, discs, textile fibres, furnishings, and many more.

Conversion of the MBT plant at Gescher into a combined residual and organic waste treatment plant
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The Waste Management Company Westmünsterland “EGW” has a mechanical biological waste treatment plant (MBT-plant) for the pretreatment of residual waste in preparation to its disposal in landfills, which was put in operation in 2000. The MBT plant was converted in 2005 to meet new legal requirements. A regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO) has been added to the biofilter for thermal exhaust air treatment and the tunnel composting was supplemented by an aerated windrow composting unit. Since 2012, theMBT plant was converted towards the biological treatment of separately collected organic waste.

Optimized biological drying for a stable quality of RDF
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The municipal utilities of Neumünster run a MBT plant which produces an annual capacity of 150.000 Mg of RDF from around 150.000 Mg/a residual waste, 32.000 Mg/a bulkywaste and around 60.000 Mg/a high calorific waste. After the comminution of the household waste fraction to parts below 80 mm, as well as parts of the bulky waste fraction to parts below 50 mm, the substance under goes biological drying in a static reactor. The goal is to reach a water content of 20 percent by weight within a drying period of 21 days. Although the drying process and the quality of the RDF have been improved continuously, quality fluctuations concerning the materials’ moisture content still occur. Due to the intensive supervision of the air management during the process of drying fora period of four month, it is now possible to control the drying process even in a static reactor by employing a targeted air Management.

Experiences during the elaboration of Waste Management concepts for eight waste management unions in Turkey
© Wasteconsult international (5/2015)
The general purpose for the project is to prepare integrated solid waste Management projects approved by EU and ready for financing and implementation under IPA (Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance) funds in accordance with the Turkish Legislation and the EU acquis for 8 Waste management Unions in the eastern and central Turkey. The waste management Unions were established according to the Turkish law and are situated in eight different Provinces, namely Artvin, Erzurum, Mersin, Banliurfa, Diyarbakir, Hakkari, KahramanmaraC, and Ordu.

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