Austria´s New Assessment Method for Remediation Options
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2012)
According to the guidelines of National Austrian Remediation Fund an options appraisal is re-quired to obtain financial resources for taking remedial actions in order to select the option gain-ing "a maximum of ecological effects under acceptable costs". However, up to now neither an ecological-economic assessment methodology nor the criteria to be assessed have been stand-ardized. Therefore the Austrian Ministry of Environment ordered the development of an appro-priate assessment tool from the authors’ institutions aimed to become mandatory to use when requesting resources from the National Remediation Fund.

ECN-QAS – A European Quality Assurance Scheme in respect to End-of-Waste Criteria for Compost and Digestate
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
Quality assurance schemes for compost and digestion products have been established themselves in the last 20 years successfully in various European Member States as a key element for the sustainable recycling of organic residues. The market and demand for quality composts increased on account of the beneficial properties of organic fertilisers and soil improvers, the need for organic matter and continuously increasing prices for mineral fertilisers. This development and also the intention by the European Commission to define an End-of-Waste standard for compost and digestate led to a demand for a European uniform Quality standard for compost plants and composted products. The European Compost Network ECN met this challenge and developed a concept for a European quality assurance scheme within its working group Standardisation and Quality Assurance. This concept includes the characterisation of quality standards for recycled organic resources especially for compost and digestate with the aim to facilitate the free cross-border movement of goods in the EU.

Collection, Treatment and Use of Bio-Waste
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
Article 22 sentence 1 lit. a) of the Waste Framework Directive (WFD) orders member states to take measures to encourage the separate collection of bio-waste leading to composting and digestion. According to Article 3 No 4 WFD the term bio-waste encompasses garden and park waste, food and kitchen waste from households, restaurants, caterers and retail premises and comparable waste from food processing plants. The term is more precise than just mere biodegradable waste, comprising other biodegradable material such as natural textile fibers, paper, cardboard or waste from wood processing.

Recovery of Recyclables from Municipal Solid Waste - Experiences from Poland and Cyprus
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
A high amount of recyclable materials is still landfilled in many European countries. Against this backdrop mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) was previously considered to be purely a residual waste stream, but now it is increasingly being looked at as a valuable source for recyclable fractions.

Plastic Waste Recovery in Spain - Overview of the Market and Applied Technologies
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
Plastic consumption in different Spanish industrial sectors was 2.840.000 tonnes in 2010 and generated approxomately 2.206.000 tonnes of plastic waste in 2010. About 23% of this waste was recycled and 17% recovered, being landfilled about 60% [2].

Challenges of Mixed Plastics Recovery from MSW Sources in the United Kingdom
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
Part of the integrated waste management approach in the United Kingdom is a mechanical pre-treatment of MSW prior to either EfW (Energy from Waste) or AD (Anaerobic Digestion). As a consequence of the pre-treatment some unwanted material is being separated form the primary target material, and in most cases this material contains some valuable sub grades. One of these sub grades is mixed plastic. The amount and quality of recoverable mixed plastics within MSW depends firstly on the collection and transfer and storage scheme prior to the mechanical pre-treamtent and secondly on the consumer and education from the Local Authority who is ultimately responsible for the local or regional waste management strategy and education.

Recovery of Plastics from Household Waste by Mechanical Separation
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
Plastic packaging in the waste of private households used to be incinerated in the Netherlands until the end of 2008. In January 2009, a source separation system for plastic packaging waste (PPW) was established to reduce the amount of residual waste and secure access to secondary resources. Between 2009 and beginning of 2011 three mechanical-biological treatment plants started to recover PPW from municipal solid refuse waste of some municipalities.

Post-Consumer Plastic Packaging Waste - How to Increase the Yield and Reduce the Cost
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
Recycling schemes for post-consumer plastic packaging waste are politically motivated, create environmental benefits for the society and increase the business costs in general. These recycling schemes are shaped by the local presence of converting industries that are able to use the recyclates as raw materials. Choices for recycling schemes should therefore be based on the expected compliance, efficiency (the lowest environmental impacts for the least costs) and the present local industry.

Fields of Research in Optical Sorting of Different Types of Waste
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
Optical sorting appeared for the first time in 1994 in Germany, France and in the USA. Initially, it was limited to the recognition of the main packaging types, as found in the "yellow bin", using the NIR spectroscopy to differentiate molecular bonds: PET, HDPE, PVC, Tetrapak were the main targets. Colour sorting was later introduced for very fine colour nuances (e.g. clear vs light blue bottles). Today, most MRFs in Europe use Optical Sorting for packaging.

German RETech Partnership (RETech) - German Recycling Technologies and Waste Management Partnership e.V.
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
The German RETech Partnership was founded as an association in December 2011 by leading representatives of German recycling businesses and associated academies. The primary objective of the association is to successfully export he concept of "Recycling and Waste Management - Made in Germany" as a product and to establish, promote and develop a modern international waste management constitution.

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