Analysis of compost is of major importance because it directly impacts on its final destination. According to the level ofcontamination and the national standards in each country, compost can be used on all crops including edible vegetables,on extended agriculture, on restoration lands, as landfill cover or simply landfilled if too contaminated. The End ofWaste process introduced by the Waste Framework Directive 2008/98 and currently managed by the Joint ResearchCentre in Seville is moving a step forward.
Y. Decelle - SITA Belgium
The compost that will acquire the European product status will no longer fallunder the waste legislation, but will be considered as an ordinary good, freely tradable and exportable in all Europeancountries.Methods of analysis in European laboratories therefore need to be harmonised in order to :
1. Establish a sound set of European End of Waste standards, based on experience from various laboratories andon various types of composts, but all based on same methods;
2. Perform analysis on composts that will be valid and trusted across all Europe.
Three ring tests were performed in 2009, 2011 and 2012 on several compost types in order to evaluate the possiblevariations between laboratories results and methodologies. Green waste compost, biowaste compost, municipal solidwaste (MSW) compost and sludge compost have been sampled and sent to specialised labs in Germany, the UK,France, Belgium and Spain. Parameters analysed were heavy metals, physical contaminants, PCB, HAP and agronomicparameters.Discrepancies have been identified between labs for some pollutants and some compost types. In some cases, the heavymetals contents were 100% higher in one lab comparing to another one. The Chromium content is particularly subject toimportant variations between labs. The differences for the other metals are important, but analysis of variances(ANOVA) did not identify significant differences between labs. Physical contaminants are difficult to compare becauseeach country has its own parameters.Significant differences have not been identified between biowaste and green waste compost : except for dry mattercontent, which is more linked to composting methods than to the types of incoming waste, there is no significantdifference between those two compost types made from source separated organic waste. However, Municipal SolidWaste composts significantly differ from the two other compost types on 2 pollutants : Zn and physical impurities. Theyalso significantly differ from biowaste compost on Cd and Hg, and from green waste compost on Cr. Fluoranthen alsosignificantly differs, but the concentration in MSW compost is much lower than in biowaste and in green compost.Based on average results, those three compost types do comply with the proposed End of Waste standards, while sludgecompost does not comply because of higher content in Cu and Zn.The Authors do not see a clear added value of the End of Waste for biodegradable waste because of the followingreasons : a) transboundary movements of compost is not frequent, b) easier access to land will not be obtained throughEoW because National legislation will still be able to limit the use of compost; c) harmonisation of compost standardsthroughout Europe does not have scientifically based grounds; d) some National standards systems will be stronglydisturbed depending on the content of the positive input list of waste.
|Copyright:||© European Compost Network ECN e.V.|
|Source:||Orbit 2012 (Juni 2012)|
|Autor:||Jean-Luc Martel |
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bifa Text No. 64: Hygienically optimised collection of biowastes with ecovio biowaste bags
© bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (7/2014)
In the bifa Text No 64, the collection of biowaste without biowaste bags was compared to collection in paper bags, PE bags and biowaste bags made of the compostable plastic ecovio.
Vergärungsanlagen als Vorschaltanlagen zur Kompostierung Nutzen, energetische und wirtschaftliche Betrachtung
© Institut für Abfall- und Kreislaufwirtschaft - TU Dresden (6/2010)
Die Integration einer Vergärungsanlage in eine bestehende Kompostierungsanlage wird derzeit an vielen Standorten geprüft und auch in beachtlicher Anzahl umgesetzt.
© VKU - Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg (7/2008)
Für die in Artikel 8 des 6. Umweltaktionsprogramms der EU aus dem Jahre 2002 festgeschriebenen Zielsetzung, die Ressourceneffizienz zu steigern, ist ein nachhaltiger Umgang mit Abfällen und natürlichen Ressourcen erforderlich. Dies entspricht auch dem im Rahmen der Nationalen Nachhaltigkeitsstrategie „Perspektiven für Deutschland“ bis zum Jahre 2020 festgelegten Zielsetzung, die Ressourcenproduktivität zu verdoppeln.
The Importance of Flexibility in EU Strategies for Organic Waste Management and the Role of MBT
© Arbeitsgemeinschaft Stoffspezifische Abfallbehandlung ASA e.V. (2/2008)
Since the mid eighties, composting of separately collected biowaste has undergone an impressive growth across Europe. First separate collection schemes in Germany were established in 1983, but even before then, composting had been adopted as a disposal route for municipal solid waste, through the attempt to sort the putrescible fraction mechanically.
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN REGIONS: TRENDS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Improving Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management services in developing regions of the world is one the major challenges of sustainable urban development. As part of its commitment to help these regions in this effort, the World Bank commissioned a study in 2006 to review and rationalize the current state of municipal solid waste management in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regions, and to recommend actions leading to improvements and greater private sector participation/investment.