Climate change (CC) and municipal solid waste (MSW) management have common demands to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The MSW disposal represent more than 20% of anthropogenic methane (CH4) (IPCC, 2005). The estimated contribution of this sector in anthropogenic GHG emissions is 3-5% (UNEP, 2010), and has great potential for reducing fuel and energy consumption in collection and treatment of CH4 avoided emissions in landfills by biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) diversion to biodigestion and composting, and fix carbon in soils by compost or biofertilizers produced application, and reduce natural resources extraction by multi-material recycling.
In Brazil, the National Policy on Solid Waste - PNRS, is being implemented with goals of close open dumps, selective collection and reverse logistics with socio-productive inclusion of waste pickers (BRAZIL, 2010). 51.4% from the MSW generated is biodegradable matter. In 2012, 57.98% of the waste disposed of ade quately, while 42.02% were inappropriate target (ABRELPE, 2012). The Brazil recycles 2% of MSW, only 0.8% of the BMW. 98% by the work of about 800,000 waste pickers. Although the National Policy on Climate Change - PNMC, set goals for the CH4 recovery from MSW treatment facilities and recycling expansion to 20% until 2015, the sector was not covered by the national strategy. Considering a NAMA an opportunity for financial and technological support from community international to Brazil forward in reducing their domestic emissions, this work aims to demonstrate the potential of the waste sector, and valuation of BMW as a compliance strategy to PNRS and PNMC.
|Copyright:||© European Compost Network ECN e.V.|
|Source:||Orbit 2014 (Juni 2014)|
|Autor:||Karina Souza |
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NAMAs – Introduction of a new instrument for climate protection and its relevance for the waste sector
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) are an emerging international climate mitigation instrument. It is supposed to be used by developing countries to make progress in reducing their domestic greenhouse gas emissions, supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity building in a measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV) manner. So far the definition from the Bali Action Plan – but what exactly is a NAMA?
Monitoring, Reporting & Verification (MRV) – How environmental sciences can
contribute to improving waste management practices in terms of climate protection and sustainability
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Despite its seemingly technical nature, MRV is yet one of the most important and contentious issues in any international arrangement on climate protection. The term encompasses all measures to collect performance data and to compile this information in reports and inventories, and to subject these to some form of review.
Market-based Instruments for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Brazil: Experiences and Prospects
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2012)
Brazil has become an increasingly important participant in the discussion about climate change, combining an active role in climate diplomacy with credible domestic policy efforts. Market-based instruments have featured prominently in its domestic policy landscape, with carbon markets envisioned both at the federal and regional level. Aside from successful participation in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and some progress in the creation of voluntary offset markets, however, the pathway towards a domestic carbon market has so far been fraught by delays and ongoing uncertainty. Still, Brazil can build on proven institutional structures, quantified emissions limitation targets, and new rules on the collection of emissions data and sectoral mitigation plans to establish robust market-based instruments. A carbon market can help leverage its vast mitigation potential to abate greenhouse gas emissions at sufficient scale while limiting the cost of compliance for domestic entities. Given its unique emissions profile, however, Brazil should not focus on becoming a net seller of carbon credits or allowances to foreign entities, but should instead harness the opportunity to create an ambitious, welldesigned market and thereby become a leader on climate change mitigation in Latin America.
Protectionism under a Green Label: Analysis in Light of the Waxman-Markey Climate Change Bill of 2009
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2010)
This research article analyzes and evaluates the key provisions of the Waxman-Markey Climate Change Bill, which was introduced to establish an aggressive cap-and-trade programme aimed at promoting renewable energy, energy efficiency, and reducing global warming pollution. However, the bill became controversial and was opposed by various countries as the provisions of the bill are against rules of the WTO. Developing countries are viewing it as an attempt to extra-territorially enforce carbon emission standards on their products and production processes, even when the latter do not have the financial capacity nor technology to effectively adopt and comply with such standards. The bill was proposed while the entire world was facing a financial crisis and the protectionism measures in the bill may further deepen the crisis. The paper ends with the conclusion that the present bill is insufficient as to control of carbon emissions, given its nature, until 2026 and it creates a volatile carbon market dominated by short-term financial gain incentives.
The Impacts of Climate Change on Poverty Alleviation: Managing the Risks
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2009)
This paper will consider the distributional impact of climate change on developed and developing countries and, in particular, flag the potential for climate change policies to negate development objectives for the poorest countries. Developing countries, such as China, India, Brazil and Mexico, are essential participants to the success of any global campaign to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is in this context that future policies involving both mitigation and adaptive strategies must incorporate measures to assist with alleviating poverty and thus enhance the ability of developing countries address broader sustainability issues. The article concludes with some suggestions for managing the risks through institutional reform.