Alternativen zur Verbrennung?

Die Abfallverbrennung ist hinsichtlich Anlagenzahl, installierter Behandlungskapazität und technischer Reife das weltweit dominierende Verfahren zur thermischen Behandlung von Restabfällen. Die Technologie ist seit über hundert Jahren etabliert und wurde durch kontinuierliche Optimierungsmaßnahmen, vor allem im Bereich der Abgasreinigung, zur umweltfreundlichen Standardtechnologie.

Die ohnehin sehr strengen Emissionsgrenzwerte werden in der Regel deutlich – zum Teil um mehrere Zehnerpotenzen – unterschritten. Gefährliche Reststoffe der Abgasreinigung werden sicher unter Tage abgelagert und die erzeugte Energie als Nah- und Fernwärme, Prozessdampf und Strom vermarktet. Aschen und Schlacken werden aufbereitet, von Eisen- und Nichteisenmetallen, die wieder in Rohstoffkreislauf rückgeführt werden, entfrachtet und, sofern dies die physikalischen und chemischen Eigenschaften zulassen, als Baustoff im Bereich Straßen- und Deponiebau verwertet.

Die Abfallverbrennung ist also eine langzeiterprobte, umweltfreundliche und sichere Technologie zur Behandlung von Restabfällen. Dennoch gibt es nach wie vor starke Vorbehalte und Vorurteile in der öffentlichen Diskussion, die nicht zuletzt auf Kommunikationsfehler der Betreiber in der Vergangenheit zurückzuführen sind. In den 70er und 80er Jahren des letzten Jahrhunderts wurden Umweltprobleme von Abfallverbrennungsanlagen häufig kleingeredet und berechtigte Bedenken der Bevölkerung beschwichtigt, anstelle proaktiv Lösungen zu finden.

1. Hintergrund

2. Aufgabenstellung

3. Thermochemische Prozesse

4. Vorgehen

5. Stand und Ausblick

6. Literatur

Copyright: © TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft
Source: Energie aus Abfall 11 (2014) (Januar 2014)
Pages: 10
Price: € 10,00
Autor: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Peter Quicker
Dipl.-Ing. Yves Noël

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